Financial and Operating Reports FAQs

Click on a link below to access that FAQ (frequently-asked question) topic.


Cash Flow Analysis Report
Cash Flow and Revenue Realization
Consulting Fees Do Not Equal -300,000
Consulting Fees of -300,000
Decision History
Dividends
Dividends on the Balance Sheet
Excel Spreadsheet Results File
Historical Benchmarks
Historical Benchmarking Results Not Accessible
Information Technology Billings Interpretation
Loans
Marketable Securities
Non-Operating Income
Ordering Financial and Operating Reports
Overheads
Price on the Corporate P&L Statement
Profitability of Demand Drivers
Ratios Rather Than Absolutes
Research Studies Cost as Reported on Financial Statements
Research Studies Reports
Return-on-Assets
Service Center Statistics Report and Unfilled Orders
Service Overhead
Service Salaries
Some Corporate P&L Statement Totals Seem Incorrect
Standard Financial and Operating Reports
Stock Prices Down Industry-Wide
Taxes When a Firm Is Unprofitable
Unfilled Handling Costs Refunds
Unfilled Orders in the Service Center Statistics Report
Weird Results
Word Formatting of LINKS Results File




Cash Flow Analysis Report

"How can the Cash Flow Analysis Report be evaluated other than to explain how loans are created and liquidated? It appears that if a firm is successful and builds volume it will incur loans yet be able to pay them off. If volume levels off, the firm will incur less debt and may have difficulty liquidating the loan, but should as long as profits are forthcoming. Are there strategic implications embedded in the Cash Flow Analysis Report that can be revealed other than debt avoidance for firms with mounting losses?"

The Cash Flow Analysis Report tracks where cash comes from and where it goes. It’s included in the LINKS financial and operating reports so that all of the traditional accounting statements are present within the standard financial reports in LINKS (profit and loss, balance sheet, and cash flow).

revised 05/27/2013
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Cash Flow and Revenue Realization

“Our current cash balance is about $3,000,000. Are our costs expensed at the beginning of the next simulation round or the end of the next simulation round? The answer influences our marketing spending decisions, since we obviously don't want to spend money before we have it.”

Assume that all revenues and costs occur uniformly throughout a simulation round. For example, within a 30-day month, about 1/30 of a month's revenues and costs are attributable to each day's operations. Thus, you do have revenue coming in regularly throughout the simulation round to pay for your various within-round operating costs. Thus, there's no need to worry about within-round cash flow issues with regard to covering your operating costs and within-round marketing spending. Also, note that you do have access to loans, as necessary, to cover shortages in cash.

revised 01/02/2007
[000003.html]
listed under "Definitions"
listed under "Financial and Operating Reports"





Consulting Fees Do Not Equal -300,000

“Consulting Fees do not equal -300,000 on our Corporate P&L Statement. Why is this?”

Additional items (e.g., RFID insourcing costs) may be included in Consulting Fees beyond just the usual -300,000 bonus for on-time input submission. Review the DECISION VARIABLE CHECKS AND MESSAGES section of your financial reports (near the end of your financial reports) for reporting of additional charges included in your Consulting Fees.

revised 06/06/2013
[000254.html]
listed under "Financial and Operating Reports"





Consulting Fees of -300,000

“What is the source and meaning of the Consulting Fees of -300,000 on our Corporate P&L Statement?”

These are negative consulting fees. Since consulting fees are an expense on the Corporate P&L Statement, a negative consulting fee is a bonus. These 300,000 bonuses are provided automatically by the LINKS software during a game run when decision inputs (at least some new decisions and/or at least some research study orders) are received on time from a firm.

These on-time input submission bonuses reward LINKS firms for completing their inputting in a timely fashion (i.e., before a scheduled game run submission deadline). Of course, firms not submitting inputs in a timely fashion are also implicitly penalized in two other ways, beyond not receiving the -300,000 consulting fee bonus: their previous decisions remain in effect (unchanged from the previous LINKS round) and no research studies are ordered. Research studies must be ordered in each LINKS round, as there are no “standing-order” LINKS research studies.

Why give a bonus for expected/required behavior? Perhaps because it's better to reward “good” behavior (even if expected/required) than to explicitly punish “bad” behavior. This is consistent with the parenting motto: "catch them doing good."

revised 06/03/2015
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Decision History

“Where can I find our past decision inputs? It’s inconvenient to look back through our printouts to find the status of our decisions in the past.”

An Excel spreadsheet results file for each LINKS firm supplements the standard LINKS Word doc results file. After each LINKS round, you'll routinely access a printed copy of your firm's Word doc results file for review and analysis. The Excel spreadsheet results file doesn't replace the Word doc results file. Rather, the Excel spreadsheet results file is a supplementary reporting mechanism for your firm's financial and operating results.

The Excel supplementary results spreadsheet consists of five worksheets with supplementary data beyond that provided in each round's Word doc results file.

  • The Results worksheet includes most of the data reported in the Word doc results file, so you don’t have to manually re-input data from the Word doc results file into an Excel spreadsheet. This supplemental Excel spreadsheet isn’t designed to be particularly “pretty” … it’s strictly designed with functional considerations in mind. You’ll need to reformat this Excel spreadsheet as you see fit by, for example, cutting-and-pasting rows and columns of data into an Excel spreadsheet of your own design.
  • The Dashboard worksheet contains a single-screen top-line summary of your firm’s key results for the most-recent LINKS round.
  • The Decision History worksheet documents the last six rounds of inputs for each LINKS decision variable for your firm. This worksheet provides a convenient archival resource to access past LINKS decision inputs.
  • The Forecasts worksheet contains two extrapolative|quantitative forecasts of the next round’s sales volume. Be sure to review the details and background assumptions of these forecasts, as reported in this worksheet.
  • The KPIcharts worksheet contains charts of each LINKS KPI vs. the corresponding industry KPI best, industry KPI average, and industry KPI worst for each of the last six LINKS rounds. These KPI charts provide an appealing graphic rendition of the LINKS performance evaluation dimensions displayed in tabular form on the first page of each firm’s Word doc financial and operating reports results file.

    To access your firm’s Excel spreadsheet, click on the appropriate link on your firm’s webpage on the LINKS Simulation Database.
  • You’ll presumably wish to save this Excel spreadsheet with a suitable name on your PC. Note that each round’s Excel spreadsheet for your firm will have to same name, so you’ll need to rename successive rounds’ spreadsheets appropriately on your PC to distinguish the spreadsheets for various LINKS rounds.
  • You may wish to change the font used throughout the Excel spreadsheet to either “8514oem” (if available) or “Courier New”, 10-point size in both cases, to permit more convenient on-screen viewing.
  • You’ll need to widen the column widths to conveniently view all of the spreadsheet values and the row and column labels/titles.

    revised 05/23/2009
    [000189.html]
    listed under "Financial and Operating Reports"
    listed under "LINKS Simulations Database"
    listed under "Website"





    Dividends

    “Where do we input the dividends decision?”

    Dividends are automatically managed by LINKS. You pay a dividend whenever you have a profit. Please refer to the LINKS participant's manual for details.

    revised 02/10/2007
    [000118.html]





    Dividends on the Balance Sheet

    “Why are dividends reported as negative numbers on our Balance Sheet?”

    Dividends are reported as negative numbers on the Balance Sheet because they represent cash outflows that effectively reduce owners' equity.

    revised 08/18/2005
    [000005.html]
    listed under "Definitions"
    listed under "Financial and Operating Reports"





    Excel Spreadsheet Results File

    “Where can I find our past decision inputs? It’s inconvenient to look back through our printouts to find the status of our decisions in the past.”

    An Excel spreadsheet results file for each LINKS firm supplements the standard LINKS Word doc results file. After each LINKS round, you'll routinely access a printed copy of your firm's Word doc results file for review and analysis. The Excel spreadsheet results file doesn't replace the Word doc results file. Rather, the Excel spreadsheet results file is a supplementary reporting mechanism for your firm's financial and operating results.

    The Excel supplementary results spreadsheet consists of five worksheets with supplementary data beyond that provided in each round's Word doc results file.

  • The Results worksheet includes most of the data reported in the Word doc results file, so you don’t have to manually re-input data from the Word doc results file into an Excel spreadsheet. This supplemental Excel spreadsheet isn’t designed to be particularly “pretty” … it’s strictly designed with functional considerations in mind. You’ll need to reformat this Excel spreadsheet as you see fit by, for example, cutting-and-pasting rows and columns of data into an Excel spreadsheet of your own design.
  • The Dashboard worksheet contains a single-screen top-line summary of your firm’s key results for the most-recent LINKS round.
  • The Decision History worksheet documents the last six rounds of inputs for each LINKS decision variable for your firm. This worksheet provides a convenient archival resource to access past LINKS decision inputs.
  • The Forecasts worksheet contains two extrapolative|quantitative forecasts of the next round’s sales volume. Be sure to review the details and background assumptions of these forecasts, as reported in this worksheet.
  • The KPIcharts worksheet contains charts of each LINKS KPI vs. the corresponding industry KPI best, industry KPI average, and industry KPI worst for each of the last six LINKS rounds. These KPI charts provide an appealing graphic rendition of the LINKS performance evaluation dimensions displayed in tabular form on the first page of each firm’s Word doc financial and operating reports results file.

    To access your firm’s Excel spreadsheet, click on the appropriate link on your firm’s webpage on the LINKS Simulation Database.
  • You’ll presumably wish to save this Excel spreadsheet with a suitable name on your PC. Note that each round’s Excel spreadsheet for your firm will have to same name, so you’ll need to rename successive rounds’ spreadsheets appropriately on your PC to distinguish the spreadsheets for various LINKS rounds.
  • You may wish to change the font used throughout the Excel spreadsheet to either “8514oem” (if available) or “Courier New”, 10-point size in both cases, to permit more convenient on-screen viewing.
  • You’ll need to widen the column widths to conveniently view all of the spreadsheet values and the row and column labels/titles.

    revised 05/23/2009
    [000187.html]
    listed under "Financial and Operating Reports"
    listed under "LINKS Simulations Database"
    listed under "Website"





    Historical Benchmarks

    “What are the Historical Benchmarks?”

    How high is “up”? In LINKS, the answer is partly provided by the within-industry benchmarks reported on the first page of each firm’s financial reports. These within-industry benchmarks provide a firm’s current-industry performance “ups” (current-industry minimums, averages, and maximums) on Key Performance Indicators such as Net Income To Revenue % and Forecasting Accuracy %.

    However, the larger question remains: what’s possible? … what’s the upper limit of performance? The LINKS Historical Benchmarks provide the answer to this broader question.

    LINKS Historical Benchmarks are based on the history of all firms since February 1, 2012 for a particular LINKS Simulations variant.

    These Historical Benchmarks provide a meaningful cross-industry performance reference for any firm at any point in time in a LINKS event. For example, a firm in a LINKS Supply Chain Management Simulation industry in Month #6 may compare its performance to all past firms in Month #6 of LINKS Supply Chain Management Simulation industries via the Historical Benchmarks.

    Note: The Global Top-10 Rankings also provide benchmarks, but the comparison in the Global Top-10 Rankings is to all other firms in all LINKS Simulations variants with a scheduled game run in that calendar week. And, of course, those other firms are using any LINKS Simulations variant (not necessarily your LINKS Simulations variant) and are at various stages in their LINKS events.

    revised 06/14/2013
    [000254.html]
    listed under "Financial and Operating Reports"
    listed under "LINKS Simulation Database"
    listed under "Performance Evaluation"





    Historical Benchmarking Results Not Accessible

    “I am having problems finding the link for Historical Benchmarking. Where is the link?”

    Historical Benchmarking results are available when enough historical data for a LINKS Simulations variant are available for meaningful comparisons. Sufficient historical data for your particular round-count for your LINKS Simulations variant aren't available.

    LINKS firms always have access to your own within-industry Forecasting Accuracy results for each round on page 1 of your financial results (your firm's Word doc file). A graphical report for the last six rounds is included in your KPI (Key Performance Indicator) charts in your Excel results.

    revised 05/27/2013
    [000253.html]
    listed under "Financial and Operating Reports"
    listed under "LINKS Simulation Database"
    listed under "Performance Evaluation"





    Information Technology Billings Interpretation

    “Why are we being charged for Information Technology on the Corporate P&L Statement? We're not currently using any information technology options.”

    As described in the LINKS participant's manual, Information Technology billings include the $1,000 per output-page charge for financial reports as well as the charges associated with any Information Technology options.

    Page count is only known after the Word doc output file is generated, which occurs after the current-rount financials are calculated. So, Information Technology costs for the current round are reported on the following round's financial reports.

    revised 10/23/2017
    [000095.html]
    listed under "Financial and Operating Reports"
    listed under "Information Technology"





    Loans

    “How are loans repaid? Is it possible to accelerate loan repayment?”

    Excess cash at the end of any simulation round is used to retire existing loans. If there are no outstanding loans, excess cash is invested in marketable securities. These operations are conducted automatically by the LINKS software with no intervention required. Given this automation situation, accelerated repayment of loans does not exist. Loans are already paid off as rapidly as available cash permits.

    revised 08/19/2005
    [000008.html]
    listed under "Definitions"
    listed under "Financial and Operating Reports"





    Marketable Securities

    “How do Marketable Securities work in LINKS?”

    Cash in excess of 10% of Revenues is automatically invested in short-term (1-quarter) Marketable Securities. Interest earned on Marketable Securities is reported as Non-Operating Income on the Corporate P&L Statement in the following quarter.

    Marketable Securities are automatically converted to Cash during the next quarter, and then possibly re-issued if Cash again exceeds 10% of Revenues at the end of the next quarter. See the process flow in the Cash Flow Analysis Report for the details of the initial conversion to Cash and subsequent re-issuing of Marketable Securities.

    revised 12/13/2012
    [000249quarter.html]
    listed under "Definitions"
    listed under "Financial and Operating Reports"





    Non-Operating Income

    “How is the non-operating income credit/charge calculated on the Corporate P&L Statement?”

    Positive [negative] non-operating income means that there were marketable securities [loans] on the previous round's Balance Sheet. Your firm receives or pays interest based on the previous round's marketing securities and loans positions. If your firm has marketable securities this round, you'll receive an interest payment next round; if your firm has loans this round, you'll pay interest next round.

    revised 01/03/2007
    [000009.html]
    listed under "Definitions"
    listed under "Financial and Operating Reports"





    Ordering Financial and Operating Reports

    “How do we order the financial and operating reports?”

    You don't order the financial and operating reports. The financial and operating reports are provided to your firm automatically at the conclusion of each LINKS round. You do "pay" for these reports at the rate of $1,000/page which is billed to you as part of your "Information Technology" expenses.

    revised 06/03/2002
    [000151.html]





    Overheads

    “How are the various O/Hs (overheads) calculated on the LINKS financial reports?”

    Please consult the participant's manual for details about the various overheads reported in your LINKS financial reports.

    revised 08/18/2005
    [000087.html]





    Price on the Corporate P&L Statement

    “How is price determined on the Corporate P&L Statement? We didn't change our prices but our corporate-level prices seem to have changed.”

    Corporate-level prices for your services are calculated as revenues divided by sales volumes. Thus, corporate-level prices are effectively weighted-average prices across all of the regions in which you're selling support services. Even if your region-specific prices are identical through time, corporate-level prices can change due to varying sales volumes in regions in which services are actively marketed.

    revised 02/20/2007
    [000086.html]





    Profitability of Demand Drivers

    “What can we do to assess the relative importance and potential profitability of all of the elements that drive our firm's demand?”

    The following video provides advice for your LINKS team about assessing the profitability of the wide range of potential demand drivers that might affect your LINKS business.


    revised 08/03/2017
    [000264.html]
    listed under “Advice”
    listed under “Financial and Operating Reports”
    listed under “Generate Demand”
    listed under “Information Technology”
    listed under ”Marketing”
    listed under "Service"





    Ratios Rather Than Absolutes

    “Why are ratios used in the performance evaluation metrics rather than absolutes? For example, why isn't (absolute) net income a performance metric?”

    Ratios are used in the performance metrics so that firm size is not a factor. Within the performance metrics, everything is expressed in ratio terms or relative-to-"something" terms (like relative to revenues) so that large or small firms aren't obviously advantaged or disadvantaged in the performance metrics.

    revised 05/16/2000
    [000078.html]
    listed under "Financial and Operating Reports"
    listed under "Performance Evaluation"





    Research Studies Cost as Reported on Financial Statements

    “The Research Studies cost on our Corporate P&L Statement doesn't match our research studies actually received. What's going on?”

    Research studies are executed after the simulation round concludes (i.e., after the financial reports for the simulation round are generated). Thus, research studies billings are lagged one simulation round. For example, on the round-5 financial reports, the research studies received with your round-4 financial reports will be billed.

    revised 08/19/2005
    [000133.html]
    listed under "Financial and Operating Reports"
    listed under "Research Studies"





    Research Studies Reports

    “Where do we find our research studies reports? We ordered lots of research studies with our inputs for the just-completed game run and we're anxious to review the research studies results.”

    After each round in LINKS, your firm’s single Word doc output file contains your firm’s financial and operating reports followed by the results of any research studies that your firm ordered.

    revised 01/27/2007
    [000061.html]
    listed under "Financial and Operating Reports"
    listed under "Research Studies"





    Return-on-Assets

    “What's the definition of 'Return-on-Assets' as used in the Performance Evaluation Reports?”

    Return-on-Assets is defined in the LINKS participant's manual. In calculating Return-on-Assets, use last quarter's Total Assets (from last quarter's Balance Sheet) and this quarter's Net Income (from this quarter's Corporate P&L Statement) and then annualize the calculated Return-on-Assets figure.

    For example, if last quarter's Total Assets was $120,000,000 and this quarter's Net Profits is $6,000,000, then this quarter's ROI is 6,000,000/120,000,000 which equals 5% for this quarter. Then, you'd need to multiply this by 4 to translate it into annualized ROI (20%, in this example).

    revised 02/20/2007
    [000136quarter.html]
    listed under "Definitions"
    listed under "Financial and Operating Reports"
    listed under "Performance Evaluation"





    Service Center Statistics Report and Unfilled Orders

    “Our firm had unfilled orders this quarter but there are no calls to our call center being reported in the Service Center Statistics Report. Why is that?”

    The Service Center Statistics Report includes counts of call center contacts. These alternative performance metrics (alternative to financial, operating, and CSR activities) reflect standing/performance of the firm in the marketplace, but perhaps with lags.

    Even though the firm had unfilled orders this quarter, there might not be any specific calls to the call center about unfilled orders. Perhaps there will be follow-up calls to the call center next quarter from still-interested customers who didn't purchase a competitor's service when they encountered an unfilled-orders situation, even if there are no actual unfilled orders next quarter. Or, perhaps customers don't ever contact the call center about unfilled orders ... perhaps customers just "go away" (to competitors).

    revised 03/24/2009
    [000228.html]
    listed under "Financial and Operating Reports"
    listed under "Information Technology"





    Service Overhead

    “Why is our Service Overhead so high?”

    Service representatives incur direct and indirect expenses in connection with providing customer service. Direct expenses generated are in terms of fringe benefits (health insurance, government taxes of various kinds, and so on) and long-distance charges. Indirect costs to support service representatives include periodic service training activities, service management overhead, office support, infrastructure support related to call center technology, and the like. The services overhead rate is detailed in your LINKS participant's manual.

    Your firm is automatically billed for the direct and indirect costs associated with maintaining service representatives in each market region. These service expenses are recorded as "Service O/H" on your financial statements.

    revised 08/18/2005
    [000031.html]
    listed under "Definitions"
    listed under "Financial and Operating Reports"
    listed under "Service"





    Service Salaries

    “How are "Service Salaries" on the financial reports calculated? We seem to have a number that’s 50% higher than multiplying the number of CSRs in the region times region’s CSR monthly salary.?”

    "Service Salaries" (total CSR salaries) on the financial reports for a region equals the number of CSRs in a region times the region’s CSR monthly salary times 3. The "times 3" multiplier converts CSR monthly salary to CSR quarterly salary, since each round in LINKS corresponds to a quarter (three months). Then, "Service Salaries" (the share of total CSR salaries allocated to a particular service) equals the CSR % time allocation to a service in a region times the total CSR salaries for a region. For example, with 100 CSRS in a region and a CSR monthly salary of $3,000, total quarterly CSR salaries in that region equals $900,000. And, a service with a 50% CSR time allocation in that region would have $450,000 in "Service Salaries" allocated to it.

    revised 03/11/2007
    [000131sm.html]
    listed under "Definitions"
    listed under "Financial and Operating Reports"
    listed under "Service"





    Some Corporate P&L Statement Totals Seem Incorrect

    “The figures on our Corporate P&L Statement don't seem to add correctly. For example, Total Fixed & Other costs for All Services doesn't equal the sum of the individual service Total Fixed & Other costs. The same problem arises for Operating Income. What's going on?”

    Only some of the fixed costs on the Corporate P&L Statement are allocated to individual services. Most of the fixed costs on the Corporate P&L Statement are left unallocated (i.e., they only appear in the All Services column). Thus, while all columns in the Corporate P&L Statement add correctly, the specific rows for Total Fixed & Other costs and Operating Income don't sum across correctly since many of the fixed cost elements weren't allocated out to the individual services.

    You could, of course, create your own Corporate P&L Statement with all fixed costs fully allocated to individual services. Then, the All Services column would be correct for the Total Fixed & Other costs and Operating Income rows. To do this, it would be necessary to make some assumptions about cost-allocation rules. And, that's a general problem with profit-and-loss statements: how should fixed costs be allocated out to individual lines of business (to services, this case). Whether such a revised Corporate P&L Statement would be more informative is an interesting question.

    revised 08/19/2005
    [000134sm.html]





    Standard Financial and Operating Reports

    “Are the financial and operatings reports that we received at the beginning of LINKS the standard report package that we'll receive in every future simulation round?”

    Yes. Note, however, that a number of information technology options exist which would generate additional pages of financial and operating reports. Research studies also exist which, if ordered, would generate additional pages of research studies reports. Research studies reports are included after the financial and operating reports, in the single Word doc file which comprises a firm's full post-round results.

    revised 09/12/2013
    [000064.html]





    Stock Prices Down Industry-Wide

    “Stock prices are down for all firms in the industry. Granted, the majority of firms are currently losing money. But, stock prices are down even for firms that are currently profitable. What’s happening?”

    Reductions in net income (and losses) obviously reduce long-run expectations of performance and, therefore, stock prices. And, average industry performance presumably does influence future expectations of industry-wide performance for all firms in an industry, even those with positive net income at the moment.

    revised 01/02/2007
    [000235.html]
    listed under "Financial and Operating Reports"
    listed under "Performance Evaluation"





    Taxes When a Firm Is Unprofitable

    “When a firm loses money, do taxes still exist?”

    If operating income plus non-operating income (interest from marketable securities plus interest paid due to loans plus the sum of all patent royalties paid and received) is negative, the firm is unprofitable. Such a loss generates “negative” taxes (i.e., a tax credit) which results in a reduction in the size of the final, post-tax net income, since the tax credit effectively subsidizes the operating income loss. In such a situation, taxes will be a positive number, reflecting the tax credit. (Normally, taxes is a negative number representing the taxes paid. But, taxes are only paid if the firm is profitable.)

    revised 06/21/2009
    [000220.html]
    listed under "Definitions"
    listed under "Financial and Operating Reports"





    Unfilled Handling Costs Refunds

    “When we have unfilled orders, unfilled handling costs arise. Do we receive a refund of these unfilled handling costs when the unfilled orders are ultimately fulfilled?”

    No, unfilled handling costs accrue with unfilled orders. (See your LINKS participant's manual for reasons why unfilled handling costs arise.) There is no "refund" if customers eventually buy from you at a later time. And, note that unfilled orders aren't backlogged orders; there's no guarantee that any/all unfilled orders will eventually translate into actual sales.

    revised 02/04/2007
    [000085.html]





    Unfilled Orders in the Service Center Statistics Report

    “In Quarter 8, our firm has no unfilled orders on our Corporate P&L Report but our Quarter 8 Service Center Statistics Report shows unfilled orders. How can this be?”

    The Service Center Statistics Report details in-bound calls to a firm's call center about various topics (listed in the report). The unfilled-orders calls are not "unfilled orders" but in-bound calls to the call center about unfilled orders this quarter and in the past. The fill rate in the past for your firm was less than 100%, so some of those customers called in this quarter about unfilled orders in the past.

    revised 05/27/2013
    [000252.html]
    listed under "Financial and Operating Reports"
    listed under "Service"





    Weird Results

    “The LINKS markets seem a lot more volatile than I’m used to in my own business experience. Is there something peculiar about the way LINKS behaves?”

    The LINKS markets are what they are. Surely, the ultimate business principle is “listen to your customers” (markets). So, please do “listen” carefully to the various LINKS markets. You need to build your business practices around your markets, which may be different than markets in which you have personal business experience.

    And please:

    1. Consider the term “markets” (with an “s”) … different markets may behave differently, so attend to such possible market segment differences.
    2. Don’t assume that your “Pacific” region is identical to the Asia-Pacific region with which you might have personal or business experience. The LINKS “Pacific” market could be different (different in size, in growth, in behavior, in sensitivity to various marketing instruments, etc.) than your personal Asia-Pacific region.
    3. Reflect on the possibility that markets can change through time (“drift” not “revolution”).

    revised 02/05/2007
    [000090.html]
    listed under "Advice"
    listed under "Financial and Operating Results"
    listed under "Forecasting"
    listed under "Strategy"





    Word Formatting of LINKS Results File

    “When I access a LINKS Word doc results file, the formatted document (i.e., margins) is hard to read due to the line wrapping. I find that I must re-set the left and right margins to make the results file document readable. Can you help with this?”

    Margins are set within your local version of Microsoft Word.

    To improve readibility of Word doc results files, you may need to change the left- and right-margins to 0.9 inches and change the document's font to a fixed pitch like 10-point Courier or Courier New. If necessary, consult your local IT guru to make this default-margin change permanent within your Microsoft Word version on your local personal computer.

    revised 12/19/2010
    [000179.html]
    listed under "Financial and Operating Reports"
    listed under "LINKS Simulation Database"
    listed under "Website"




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